How does Saito solve the 51% attack?
Saito ensures that producing blocks is always expensive. Honest nodes pay those costs with the fees they collect from users. Attackers must pay out-of-pocket and are guaranteed to lose a quantifiable amount of money with each block they produce. There is no point at which this cost-of-attack falls below zero.
Unless attackers match the amount of work done by the overall network, they either cannot produce blocks as quickly as honest nodes, or are able to produce blocks but not collect payments. Attackers must either go bankrupt or permit others to add work to their chain.